Source code for

This module provides a web scraper.
import os
import re
import calendar
from time import sleep
from ftplib import FTP
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from urllib.error import HTTPError
from urllib.parse import urlsplit
from urllib.request import urlopen

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta

from astropy.time import Time

from sunpy import log
from sunpy.extern.parse import parse
from sunpy.time import TimeRange
from sunpy.util.exceptions import warn_user

__all__ = ['Scraper']

# regular expressions to convert datetime format
# added `%e` as for milliseconds `%f/1000`
TIME_CONVERSIONS = {'%Y': r'\d{4}', '%y': r'\d{2}',
                    '%b': '[A-Z][a-z]{2}', '%B': r'\W', '%m': r'\d{2}',
                    '%d': r'\d{2}', '%j': r'\d{3}',
                    '%H': r'\d{2}', '%I': r'\d{2}',
                    '%M': r'\d{2}',
                    '%S': r'\d{2}', '%e': r'\d{3}', '%f': r'\d{6}'}
TIME_QUANTITIES = {'day': timedelta(days=1),
                   'hour': timedelta(hours=1),
                   'minute': timedelta(minutes=1),
                   'second': timedelta(seconds=1),
                   'millisecond': timedelta(milliseconds=1)}

[docs] class Scraper: """ A Scraper to scrap web data archives based on dates. Parameters ---------- pattern : `str` A string containing the url with the date encoded as datetime formats, and any other parameter as ``kwargs`` as a string format. This can also be a uri to a local file patterns. regex : `bool` Set to `True` if parts of the pattern uses regexp symbols. This only works for the filename part of the pattern rather than the full url. Be careful that periods ``.`` matches any character and therefore it's better to escape them. If regexp is used, other ``kwargs`` are ignored and string replacement is not possible. Default is `False`. Attributes ---------- pattern : `str` A converted string with the kwargs. now : `datetime.datetime` The pattern with the actual date. Examples -------- >>> from import Scraper >>> pattern = ('{instrument}/data/bsd/%Y/%m/%d/' ... '{instrument}_lv1_%Y%m%d_%H%M%S.fits') >>> swap = Scraper(pattern, instrument='swap') >>> print(swap.pattern) >>> print( # doctest: +SKIP Notes ----- The ``now`` attribute does not return an existent file, but just how the pattern looks with the actual time. """ def __init__(self, pattern, regex=False, **kwargs): if regex: self.pattern = pattern if kwargs: warn_user('regexp being used, the extra arguments passed are being ignored') else: self.pattern = pattern.format(**kwargs) self.domain = f"{urlsplit(self.pattern).scheme}://{urlsplit(self.pattern).netloc}/" milliseconds ='\%e', self.pattern) if not milliseconds: = else: now = milliseconds_ = int(now.microsecond / 1000.) = now.strftime(f'{self.pattern[0:milliseconds.start()]}{milliseconds_:03d}{self.pattern[milliseconds.end():]}')
[docs] def matches(self, filepath, date): return date.strftime(self.pattern) == filepath
[docs] def range(self, timerange): """ Gets the directories for a certain range of time. Parameters ---------- timerange : `~sunpy.time.timerange.TimeRange` Time interval where to find the directories for a given pattern. Returns ------- `list` of `str` All the possible directories valid for the time range given. Notice that these directories may not exist in the archive. """ # find directory structure - without file names if '/' in self.pattern: directorypattern = '/'.join(self.pattern.split('/')[:-1]) + '/' timestep = self._smallerPattern(directorypattern) if timestep is None: return [directorypattern] else: directories = [] cur = self._date_floor(timerange.start, timestep) end = self._date_floor(timerange.end, timestep) + timestep while cur < end: directories.append(cur.strftime(directorypattern)) cur = cur + timestep return directories
@staticmethod def _date_floor(date, timestep): """ Return the "floor" of the given date and time step. Parameters ---------- datetime : `datetime.datetime` or `astropy.time.Time` The date to floor timestep : `dateutil.relativedelta.relativedelta` The smallest time step to floor Returns ------- `datetime.datetime` The time floored at the given time step """ date_parts = [int(p) for p in date.strftime('%Y,%m,%d,%H,%M,%S').split(',')] date_parts[-1] = date_parts[-1] % 60 date = datetime(*date_parts) orig_time_tup = date.timetuple() time_tup = [orig_time_tup.tm_year, orig_time_tup.tm_mon, orig_time_tup.tm_mday, orig_time_tup.tm_hour, orig_time_tup.tm_min, orig_time_tup.tm_sec] if timestep == relativedelta(minutes=1): time_tup[-1] = 0 elif timestep == relativedelta(hours=1): time_tup[-2:] = [0, 0] elif timestep == relativedelta(days=1): time_tup[-3:] = [0, 0, 0] elif timestep == relativedelta(months=1): time_tup[-4:] = [1, 0, 0, 0] elif timestep == relativedelta(years=1): time_tup[-5:] = [1, 1, 0, 0, 0] return datetime(*time_tup) def _URL_followsPattern(self, url): """ Check whether the url provided follows the pattern. """ pattern = self.pattern for k, v in TIME_CONVERSIONS.items(): pattern = pattern.replace(k, v) matches = re.match(pattern, url) if matches: return matches.end() == matches.endpos return False def _extractDateURL(self, url): """ Extracts the date from a particular url following the pattern. """ # remove the user and passwd from files if there: url = url.replace("", "") def url_to_list(txt): # Substitutes '.' and '_' for '/'. return re.sub(r'\.|_', '/', txt).split('/') # create a list of all the blocks in times - assuming they are all # separated with either '.', '_' or '/'. pattern_list = url_to_list(self.pattern) url_list = url_to_list(url) time_order = ['%Y', '%y', '%b', '%B', '%m', '%d', '%j', '%H', '%I', '%M', '%S', '%e', '%f'] final_date = [] final_pattern = [] # Find in directory and filename for pattern_elem, url_elem in zip(pattern_list, url_list): time_formats = [x for x in time_order if x in pattern_elem] if len(time_formats) > 0: # Find whether there's text that should not be here toremove = re.split('%.', pattern_elem) if len(toremove) > 0: for bit in toremove: if bit != '': url_elem = url_elem.replace(bit, '', 1) pattern_elem = pattern_elem.replace(bit, '', 1) final_date.append(url_elem) final_pattern.append(pattern_elem) for time_bit in time_formats: time_order.remove(time_bit) # Find and remove repeated elements eg: %Y in ['%Y', '%Y%m%d'] # Make all as single strings date_together = ''.join(final_date) pattern_together = ''.join(final_pattern) re_together = pattern_together for k, v in TIME_CONVERSIONS.items(): re_together = re_together.replace(k, v) # Lists to contain the unique elements of the date and the pattern final_date = list() final_pattern = list() re_together = re_together.replace('[A-Z]', '\\[A-Z]') for p, r in zip(pattern_together.split('%')[1:], re_together.split('\\')[1:]): if p == 'e': continue regexp = fr'\{r}' if not r.startswith('[') else r pattern = f'%{p}' date_part =, date_together) date_together = date_together[:date_part.start()] \ + date_together[date_part.end():] if pattern not in final_pattern: final_pattern.append(f'%{p}') final_date.append( return Time.strptime(' '.join(final_date), ' '.join(final_pattern))
[docs] def filelist(self, timerange): """ Returns the list of existent files in the archive for the given time range. Parameters ---------- timerange : `~sunpy.time.TimeRange` Time interval where to find the directories for a given pattern. Returns ------- filesurls : `list` of `str` List of all the files found between the time range given. Examples -------- >>> from import Scraper >>> pattern = ('{instrument}/data/bsd/%Y/%m/%d/' ... '{instrument}_lv1_%Y%m%d_%H%M%S.fits') >>> swap = Scraper(pattern, instrument='swap') >>> from sunpy.time import TimeRange >>> timerange = TimeRange('2015-01-01T00:08:00','2015-01-01T00:12:00') >>> print(swap.filelist(timerange)) # doctest: +REMOTE_DATA ['', '', ''] Notes ----- The search is strict with the time range, so if the archive scraped contains daily files, but the range doesn't start from the beginning of the day, then the file for that day won't be selected. The end of the timerange will normally be OK as includes the file on such end time. """ directories = self.range(timerange) filesurls = [] if urlsplit(directories[0]).scheme == "ftp": return self._ftpfileslist(timerange) if urlsplit(directories[0]).scheme == "file": return self._localfilelist(timerange) while directories: directory = directories.pop(0) try: opn = urlopen(directory) try: soup = BeautifulSoup(opn, "html.parser") for link in soup.find_all("a"): href = link.get("href") if href is not None and href.endswith(self.pattern.split('.')[-1]): if href[0] == '/': fullpath = self.domain + href[1:] else: fullpath = directory + href if self._URL_followsPattern(fullpath): if self._check_timerange(fullpath, timerange): filesurls.append(fullpath) finally: opn.close() except HTTPError as http_err: # Ignore missing directories (issue #2684). if http_err.code == 404: continue if http_err.code == 429: # See if the server has told us how long to back off for retry_after = http_err.hdrs.get('Retry-After', 2) try: # Ensure that we can parse the header as an int in sec retry_after = int(retry_after) except Exception as e: log.debug(f"Converting retry_after failed: {e}") retry_after = 2 log.debug( f"Got 429 while scraping {directory}, waiting for {retry_after} seconds before retrying." ) sleep(retry_after) # Put this dir back on the queue directories.insert(0, directory) continue raise except Exception: raise return filesurls
def _ftpfileslist(self, timerange): directories = self.range(timerange) filesurls = list() ftpurl = urlsplit(directories[0]).netloc with FTP(ftpurl, user="anonymous", passwd="") as ftp: for directory in directories: try: ftp.cwd(urlsplit(directory).path) except Exception as e: log.debug(f"FTP CWD: {e}") continue for file_i in ftp.nlst(): fullpath = directory + file_i if self._URL_followsPattern(fullpath): if self._check_timerange(fullpath, timerange): filesurls.append(fullpath) filesurls = ['ftp://' + f"{urlsplit(url).netloc}{urlsplit(url).path}" for url in filesurls] return filesurls def _localfilelist(self, timerange): pattern = self.pattern pattern_temp = pattern.replace('file://', '') if == 'nt': pattern_temp = pattern_temp.replace('\\', '/') prefix = 'file:///' else: prefix = 'file://' self.pattern = pattern_temp directories = self.range(timerange) filepaths = list() for directory in directories: for file_i in os.listdir(directory): fullpath = directory + file_i if self._URL_followsPattern(fullpath): if self._check_timerange(fullpath, timerange): filepaths.append(fullpath) filepaths = [prefix + path for path in filepaths] self.pattern = pattern return filepaths def _check_timerange(self, url, timerange): """ Checks whether the time range represented in *url* intersects with the given time range. Parameters ---------- url : `str` URL of the file. timerange : `~sunpy.time.TimeRange` Time interval for which files were searched. Returns ------- `bool` `True` if URL's valid time range overlaps the given timerange, else `False`. """ if hasattr(self, 'extractor'): exdict = parse(self.extractor, url).named tr = get_timerange_from_exdict(exdict) return tr.intersects(timerange) else: datehref = self._extractDateURL(url).to_datetime() smaller_pattern = self._smallerPattern(self.pattern) file_timerange = TimeRange(datehref, datehref + smaller_pattern) return file_timerange.intersects(timerange) def _smallerPattern(self, directoryPattern): """ Obtain the smaller time step for the given pattern. """ try: if "%S" in directoryPattern: return relativedelta(seconds=1) elif "%M" in directoryPattern: return relativedelta(minutes=1) elif any(hour in directoryPattern for hour in ["%H", "%I"]): return relativedelta(hours=1) elif any(day in directoryPattern for day in ["%d", "%j"]): return relativedelta(days=1) elif any(month in directoryPattern for month in ["%b", "%B", "%m"]): return relativedelta(months=1) elif any(year in directoryPattern for year in ["%Y", "%y"]): return relativedelta(years=1) else: return None except Exception: raise def _extract_files_meta(self, timerange, extractor, matcher=None): """ Returns metadata information contained in URLs. Parameters ---------- timerange : `~sunpy.time.TimeRange` Time interval where to find the directories for a given pattern. extractor : `str` Pattern to extract metadata by parsing the URL. matcher : `dict` Dictionary to check if extracted metadata is valid. Returns ------- `list` of `dict` List of metadata info for all URLs. """ self.extractor = extractor urls = self.filelist(timerange) metalist = [] for url in urls: metadict = parse(extractor, url) if metadict is not None: append = True metadict = metadict.named metadict['url'] = url if matcher is not None: for k in metadict: if k in matcher and str(metadict[k]) not in matcher[k]: append = False break if append: metalist.append(metadict) return metalist
def get_timerange_from_exdict(exdict): """ Function to get URL's timerange using extracted metadata. It computes start and end times first using the given dictionary and then returns a timerange. Parameters ---------- exdict : `dict` Metadata extracted from the file's url. Returns ------- `~sunpy.time.TimeRange` The time range of the file. """ # This function deliberately does NOT use astropy.time because it is not # needed, and the performance overheads in dealing with astropy.time.Time # objects are large datetypes = ['year', 'month', 'day'] timetypes = ['hour', 'minute', 'second', 'millisecond'] dtlist = [int(exdict.get(d, 1)) for d in datetypes] dtlist.extend([int(exdict.get(t, 0)) for t in timetypes]) startTime = datetime(*dtlist) tdelta = TIME_QUANTITIES['millisecond'] if "second" in exdict: tdelta = TIME_QUANTITIES['second'] elif "minute" in exdict: tdelta = TIME_QUANTITIES['minute'] elif "hour" in exdict: tdelta = TIME_QUANTITIES['hour'] elif "day" in exdict: tdelta = TIME_QUANTITIES['day'] elif "month" in exdict: days_in_month = calendar.monthrange(int(exdict['year']), int(exdict['month']))[1] tdelta = days_in_month*TIME_QUANTITIES['day'] elif "year" in exdict: if calendar.isleap(int(exdict['year'])): tdelta = 366*TIME_QUANTITIES['day'] else: tdelta = 365*TIME_QUANTITIES['day'] endTime = startTime + tdelta - TIME_QUANTITIES['millisecond'] return TimeRange(startTime, endTime)