Source code for

Map is a generic Map class from which all other Map classes inherit from.
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
from sunpy.extern.six.moves import range

import warnings
import inspect
from abc import ABCMeta
from copy import deepcopy
from collections import OrderedDict, namedtuple

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import patches, cm, colors

import astropy.wcs
import astropy.units as u
from astropy.visualization.wcsaxes import WCSAxes
from astropy.coordinates import SkyCoord

import as io
import sunpy.coordinates
from sunpy.util.decorators import deprecated
from sunpy import config
from sunpy.extern import six
from sunpy.visualization import toggle_pylab, wcsaxes_compat, axis_labels_from_ctype
from sunpy.sun import constants
from sunpy.sun import sun
from sunpy.time import parse_time, is_time
from sunpy.image.transform import affine_transform
from sunpy.image.rescale import reshape_image_to_4d_superpixel
from sunpy.image.rescale import resample as sunpy_image_resample
from sunpy.coordinates import get_sun_B0, get_sun_L0, get_sunearth_distance

from astropy.nddata import NDData

TIME_FORMAT = config.get("general", "time_format")
PixelPair = namedtuple('PixelPair', 'x y')
SpatialPair = namedtuple('SpatialPair', 'axis1 axis2')

__all__ = ['GenericMap']

* Should we use Helioviewer or VSO's data model? (e.g. map.meas, map.wavelength
or something else?)
* Should 'center' be renamed to 'offset' and crpix1 & 2 be used for 'center'?

# GenericMap subclass registry.
MAP_CLASSES = OrderedDict()

class GenericMapMetaclass(ABCMeta):
    Registration metaclass for ``.

    This class checks for the existance of a method named ``is_datasource_for``
    when a subclass of `GenericMap` is defined. If it exists it will add that
    class to the registry.

    _registry = MAP_CLASSES

    def __new__(mcls, name, bases, members):
        cls = super(GenericMapMetaclass, mcls).__new__(mcls, name, bases, members)

        # The registry contains the class as the key and the validation method
        # as the item.
        if 'is_datasource_for' in members:
            mcls._registry[cls] = cls.is_datasource_for

        return cls

[docs]@six.add_metaclass(GenericMapMetaclass) class GenericMap(NDData): """ A Generic spatially-aware 2D data array Parameters ---------- data : `~numpy.ndarray`, list A 2d list or ndarray containing the map data meta : dict A dictionary of the original image header tags Examples -------- >>> import >>> import >>> aia = >>> aia # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE SunPy AIAMap --------- Observatory: SDO Instrument: AIA 3 Detector: AIA Measurement: 171.0 Angstrom Wavelength: 171.0 Angstrom Obs Date: 2011-03-19 10:54:00 dt: 1.999601 s Dimension: [ 1024. 1024.] pix scale: [ 2.4 2.4] arcsec / pix <BLANKLINE> array([[ 0.3125, -0.0625, -0.125 , ..., 0.625 , -0.625 , 0. ], [ 1. , 0.1875, -0.8125, ..., 0.625 , -0.625 , 0. ], [-1.1875, 0.375 , -0.5 , ..., -0.125 , -0.625 , -1.1875], ..., [-0.625 , 0.0625, -0.3125, ..., 0.125 , 0.125 , 0.125 ], [ 0.5625, 0.0625, 0.5625, ..., -0.0625, -0.0625, 0. ], [ 0.5 , -0.125 , 0.4375, ..., 0.6875, 0.6875, 0.6875]]) >>> aia.spatial_units SpatialPair(axis1=Unit("arcsec"), axis2=Unit("arcsec")) >>> aia.peek() # doctest: +SKIP Notes ----- A number of the properties of this class are returned as two-value named tuples that can either be indexed by position ([0] or [1]) or be accessed by the names (.x and .y) or (.axis1 and .axis2). Things that refer to pixel axes use the ``.x``, ``.y`` convention, where x and y refer to the FITS axes (x for columns y for rows). Spatial axes use ``.axis1`` and ``.axis2`` which correspond to the first and second axes in the header. ``axis1`` corresponds to the coordinate axis for ``x`` and ``axis2`` corresponds to ``y``. This class makes some assumptions about the WCS information contained in the meta data. The first and most extensive assumption is that it is FITS-like WCS information as defined in the FITS WCS papers. Within this scope it also makes some other assumptions. * In the case of APIS convention headers where the CROTAi/j arguments are provided it assumes that these can be converted to the standard PCi_j notation using equations 32 in Thompson (2006). * If a CDi_j matrix is provided it is assumed that it can be converted to a PCi_j matrix and CDELT keywords as described in `Greisen & Calabretta (2002) <>`_ * The 'standard' FITS keywords that are used by this class are the PCi_j matrix and CDELT, along with the other keywords specified in the WCS papers. All subclasses of this class must convert their header information to this formalism. The CROTA to PCi_j conversion is done in this class. .. warning:: This class currently assumes that a header with the CDi_j matrix information also includes the CDELT keywords, without these keywords this class will not process the WCS. Also the rotation_matrix does not work if the CDELT1 and CDELT2 keywords are exactly equal. Also, if a file with more than two dimensions is feed into the class, only the first two dimensions (NAXIS1, NAXIS2) will be loaded and the rest will be discarded. """ def __init__(self, data, header, plot_settings=None, **kwargs): # If the data has more than two dimensions, the first dimensions # (NAXIS1, NAXIS2) are used and the rest are discarded. ndim = data.ndim if ndim > 2: # We create a slice that removes all but the 'last' two # dimensions. (Note dimensions in ndarray are in reverse order) new_2d_slice = [0]*(ndim-2) new_2d_slice.extend([slice(None), slice(None)]) data = data[new_2d_slice] # Warn the user that the data has been truncated warnings.warn_explicit("This file contains more than 2 dimensions. " "Only the first two dimensions will be used." " The truncated data will not be saved in a new file.", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) super(GenericMap, self).__init__(data, meta=header, **kwargs) # Correct possibly missing meta keywords self._fix_date() self._fix_naxis() # Setup some attributes self._nickname = None # Validate header # TODO: This should be a function of the header, not of the map self._validate_meta() self._shift = SpatialPair(0 * u.arcsec, 0 * u.arcsec) if self.dtype == np.uint8: norm = None else: norm = colors.Normalize() # Visualization attributes self.plot_settings = {'cmap': cm.gray, 'norm': norm, 'interpolation': 'nearest', 'origin': 'lower' } if plot_settings: self.plot_settings.update(plot_settings) def __getitem__(self, key): """ This should allow indexing by physical coordinate """ raise NotImplementedError( "The ability to index Map by physical" " coordinate is not yet implemented.") def __repr__(self): return ( """SunPy Map --------- Observatory:\t\t {obs} Instrument:\t\t {inst} Detector:\t\t {det} Measurement:\t\t {meas} Wavelength:\t\t {wave} Observation Date:\t {date:{tmf}} Exposure Time:\t\t {dt:f} Dimension:\t\t {dim} Coordinate System:\t {} Scale:\t\t\t {scale} Reference Pixel:\t {refpix} Reference Coord:\t {refcoord} """.format(obs=self.observatory, inst=self.instrument, det=self.detector, meas=self.measurement, wave=self.wavelength,, dt=self.exposure_time, dim=u.Quantity(self.dimensions), scale=u.Quantity(self.scale), coord=self.coordinate_frame, refpix=u.Quantity(self.reference_pixel), refcoord=u.Quantity((,, tmf=TIME_FORMAT) + @classmethod def _new_instance(cls, data, meta, plot_settings=None, **kwargs): """ Instantiate a new instance of this class using given data. This is a shortcut for ``type(self)(data, meta, plot_settings)`` """ return cls(data, meta, plot_settings=plot_settings, **kwargs) def _get_lon_lat(self, frame): """ Given a coordinate frame, extract the lon and lat by casting to SphericalWrap180Representation first. """ r = frame.represent_as(sunpy.coordinates.representation.SphericalWrap180Representation) return[0]),[1]) @property def wcs(self): """ The `~astropy.wcs.WCS` property of the map. """ w2 = astropy.wcs.WCS(naxis=2) w2.wcs.crpix = u.Quantity(self.reference_pixel) # Make these a quantity array to prevent the numpy setting element of # array with sequence error. w2.wcs.cdelt = u.Quantity(self.scale) w2.wcs.crval = u.Quantity([self._reference_longitude, self._reference_latitude]) w2.wcs.ctype = self.coordinate_system w2.wcs.pc = self.rotation_matrix w2.wcs.cunit = self.spatial_units w2.wcs.dateobs = w2.heliographic_observer = self.observer_coordinate w2.rsun = self.rsun_meters # Astropy WCS does not understand the SOHO default of "solar-x" and # "solar-y" ctypes. This overrides the default assignment and # changes it to a ctype that is understood. See Thompson, 2006, A.&A., # 449, 791. if w2.wcs.ctype[0].lower() in ("solar-x", "solar_x"): w2.wcs.ctype[0] = 'HPLN-TAN' if w2.wcs.ctype[1].lower() in ("solar-y", "solar_y"): w2.wcs.ctype[1] = 'HPLT-TAN' return w2 @property def coordinate_frame(self): """ An `astropy.coordinates.BaseFrame` instance created from the coordinate information for this Map. """ return astropy.wcs.utils.wcs_to_celestial_frame(self.wcs) def _as_mpl_axes(self): """ Compatibility hook for Matplotlib and WCSAxes. This functionality requires the WCSAxes package to work. The reason we include this here is that it allows users to use WCSAxes without having to explicitly import WCSAxes With this method, one can do:: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import amap ='filename.fits') fig = plt.figure() ax = plt.subplot(projection=amap) ... and this will generate a plot with the correct WCS coordinates on the axes. See for more information. """ # This code is reused from Astropy return WCSAxes, {'wcs': self.wcs} # Some numpy extraction @property def dimensions(self): """ The dimensions of the array (x axis first, y axis second). """ return PixelPair(*u.Quantity(np.flipud(, 'pixel')) @property def dtype(self): """ The `numpy.dtype` of the array of the map. """ return @property def size(self): """ The number of pixels in the array of the map. """ return u.Quantity(, 'pixel') @property def ndim(self): """ The value of `numpy.ndarray.ndim` of the data array of the map. """ return
[docs] def std(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Calculate the standard deviation of the data array. """ return*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def mean(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Calculate the mean of the data array. """ return*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def min(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Calculate the minimum value of the data array. """ return*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def max(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Calculate the maximum value of the data array. """ return*args, **kwargs)
# #### Keyword attribute and other attribute definitions #### # def _base_name(self): """Abstract the shared bit between name and latex_name""" return "{nickname} {{measurement}} {date:{tmf}}".format(nickname=self.nickname, date=parse_time(, tmf=TIME_FORMAT) @property def name(self): """Human-readable description of the Map.""" return self._base_name().format(measurement=self.measurement) @property def latex_name(self): """LaTeX formatted description of the Map.""" if isinstance(self.measurement, u.Quantity): return self._base_name().format(measurement=self.measurement._repr_latex_()) else: return @property def nickname(self): """An abbreviated human-readable description of the map-type; part of the Helioviewer data model""" return self._nickname if self._nickname else self.detector @nickname.setter def nickname(self, n): self._nickname = n @property def date(self): """Image observation time""" time = parse_time(self.meta.get('date-obs', 'now')) if time is None: warnings.warn_explicit("Missing metadata for observation time." " Using current time.", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) return parse_time(time) @property def detector(self): """Detector name""" return self.meta.get('detector', "") @property def dsun(self): """The observer distance from the Sun.""" dsun = self.meta.get('dsun_obs', None) if dsun is None: warnings.warn_explicit("Missing metadata for Sun-spacecraft" " separation: assuming Sun-Earth distance", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) dsun = get_sunearth_distance( return u.Quantity(dsun, 'm') @property def exposure_time(self): """Exposure time of the image in seconds.""" return self.meta.get('exptime', 0.0) * u.s @property def instrument(self): """Instrument name""" return self.meta.get('instrume', "").replace("_", " ") @property def measurement(self): """Measurement name, defaults to the wavelength of image""" return u.Quantity(self.meta.get('wavelnth', 0), self.meta.get('waveunit', "")) @property def wavelength(self): """wavelength of the observation""" return u.Quantity(self.meta.get('wavelnth', 0), self.meta.get('waveunit', "")) @property def observatory(self): """Observatory or Telescope name""" return self.meta.get('obsrvtry', self.meta.get('telescop', "")).replace("_", " ") @property def processing_level(self): """ Returns the FITS processing level if present. """ return self.meta.get('lvl_num', None) @property @deprecated("0.8", "This property is only valid for non-rotated WCS") def xrange(self): """Return the X range of the image from edge to edge.""" xmin = - self.dimensions[0] / 2. * self.scale[0] xmax = + self.dimensions[0] / 2. * self.scale[0] return u.Quantity([xmin, xmax]) @property @deprecated("0.8", "This property is only valid for non-rotated WCS") def yrange(self): """Return the Y range of the image from edge to edge.""" ymin = - self.dimensions[1] / 2. * self.scale[1] ymax = + self.dimensions[1] / 2. * self.scale[1] return u.Quantity([ymin, ymax]) @property def bottom_left_coord(self): """ The physical coordinate for the bottom left [0,0] pixel. """ return self.pixel_to_world(0*u.pix, 0*u.pix) @property def top_right_coord(self): """ The physical coordinate for the top left pixel. """ return self.pixel_to_world(*self.dimensions) @property def center(self): """ Return a coordinate object for the center pixel of the array. """ center = u.Quantity(self.dimensions) / 2. return self.pixel_to_world(*center) @property def shifted_value(self): """The total shift applied to the reference coordinate by past applications of ``.""" return self._shift
[docs] @u.quantity_input(axis1=u.deg, axis2=u.deg) def shift(self, axis1, axis2): """ Returns a map shifted by a specified amount to, for example, correct for a bad map location. These values are applied directly to the ``. To check how much shift has already been applied see `` Parameters ---------- axis1 : `~astropy.units.Quantity` The shift to apply to the Longitude (solar-x) coordinate. axis2 : `~astropy.units.Quantity` The shift to apply to the Latitude (solar-y) coordinate Returns ------- out : `` or subclass A new shifted Map. """ new_meta = self.meta.copy() # Update crvals new_meta['crval1'] = ((self.meta['crval1'] * self.spatial_units[0] + axis1).to(self.spatial_units[0])).value new_meta['crval2'] = ((self.meta['crval2'] * self.spatial_units[1] + axis2).to(self.spatial_units[1])).value # Create new map with the modification new_map = self._new_instance(, new_meta, self.plot_settings) new_map._shift = SpatialPair(self.shifted_value[0] + axis1, self.shifted_value[1] + axis2) return new_map
@property def rsun_meters(self): """Radius of the sun in meters""" return u.Quantity(self.meta.get('rsun_ref', constants.radius), 'meter') @property def rsun_obs(self): """Radius of the Sun.""" rsun_arcseconds = self.meta.get('rsun_obs', self.meta.get('solar_r', self.meta.get('radius', None))) if rsun_arcseconds is None: warnings.warn_explicit("Missing metadata for solar radius:" " assuming photospheric limb as seen from Earth", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) rsun_arcseconds = sun.solar_semidiameter_angular_size('arcsec').value return u.Quantity(rsun_arcseconds, 'arcsec') @property def coordinate_system(self): """Coordinate system used for x and y axes (ctype1/2)""" return SpatialPair(self.meta.get('ctype1', 'HPLN- '), self.meta.get('ctype2', 'HPLT- ')) @property def carrington_longitude(self): """Carrington longitude (crln_obs)""" carrington_longitude = self.meta.get('crln_obs', None) if carrington_longitude is None: warnings.warn_explicit("Missing metadata for Carrington longitude:" " assuming Earth-based observer", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) carrington_longitude = get_sun_L0( if isinstance(carrington_longitude, six.string_types): carrington_longitude = float(carrington_longitude) return u.Quantity(carrington_longitude, 'deg') @property def heliographic_latitude(self): """Heliographic latitude""" heliographic_latitude = self.meta.get('hglt_obs', self.meta.get('crlt_obs', self.meta.get('solar_b0', None))) if heliographic_latitude is None: warnings.warn_explicit("Missing metadata for heliographic latitude:" " assuming Earth-based observer", Warning, __file__, inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_lineno) heliographic_latitude = get_sun_B0( if isinstance(heliographic_latitude, six.string_types): heliographic_latitude = float(heliographic_latitude) return u.Quantity(heliographic_latitude, 'deg') @property def heliographic_longitude(self): """Heliographic longitude""" heliographic_longitude = self.meta.get('hgln_obs', 0.) if isinstance(heliographic_longitude, six.string_types): heliographic_longitude = float(heliographic_longitude) return u.Quantity(heliographic_longitude, 'deg') @property def observer_coordinate(self): """ The Heliographic Stonyhurst Coordinate of the observer. """ return SkyCoord(lat=self.heliographic_latitude, lon=self.heliographic_longitude, radius=self.dsun,, frame='heliographic_stonyhurst') @property def _reference_longitude(self): """ FITS-WCS compatible longitude. Used in self.wcs and self.reference_coordinate. """ return self.meta.get('crval1', 0.) * self.spatial_units[0] @property def _reference_latitude(self): return self.meta.get('crval2', 0.) * self.spatial_units[1] @property def reference_coordinate(self): """Reference point WCS axes in data units (i.e. crval1, crval2). This value includes a shift if one is set.""" return SkyCoord(self._reference_longitude, self._reference_latitude, frame=self.coordinate_frame) @property def reference_pixel(self): """Reference point axes in pixels (i.e. crpix1, crpix2)""" return PixelPair(self.meta.get('crpix1', (self.meta.get('naxis1') + 1) / 2.) * u.pixel, self.meta.get('crpix2', (self.meta.get('naxis2') + 1) / 2.) * u.pixel) @property def scale(self): """ Image scale along the x and y axes in units/pixel (i.e. cdelt1, cdelt2) """ # TODO: Fix this if only CDi_j matrix is provided return SpatialPair(self.meta.get('cdelt1', 1.) * self.spatial_units[0] / u.pixel, self.meta.get('cdelt2', 1.) * self.spatial_units[1] / u.pixel) @property def spatial_units(self): """ Image coordinate units along the x and y axes (i.e. cunit1, cunit2). """ return SpatialPair(u.Unit(self.meta.get('cunit1', 'arcsec')), u.Unit(self.meta.get('cunit2', 'arcsec'))) @property def rotation_matrix(self): """ Matrix describing the rotation required to align solar North with the top of the image. """ if 'PC1_1' in self.meta: return np.matrix([[self.meta['PC1_1'], self.meta['PC1_2']], [self.meta['PC2_1'], self.meta['PC2_2']]]) elif 'CD1_1' in self.meta: cd = np.matrix([[self.meta['CD1_1'], self.meta['CD1_2']], [self.meta['CD2_1'], self.meta['CD2_2']]]) cdelt = u.Quantity(self.scale).value return cd / cdelt else: return self._rotation_matrix_from_crota() def _rotation_matrix_from_crota(self): """ This method converts the deprecated CROTA FITS kwargs to the new PC rotation matrix. This method can be overriden if an instruments header does not use this conversion. """ lam = self.scale[0] / self.scale[1] p = np.deg2rad(self.meta.get('CROTA2', 0)) return np.matrix([[np.cos(p), -1 * lam * np.sin(p)], [1/lam * np.sin(p), np.cos(p)]]) # #### Miscellaneous #### # def _fix_date(self): # Check commonly used but non-standard FITS keyword for observation # time and correct the keyword if we can. Keep updating old one for # backwards compatibility. if is_time(self.meta.get('date_obs', None)): self.meta['date-obs'] = self.meta['date_obs'] def _fix_naxis(self): # If naxis is not specified, get it from the array shape if 'naxis1' not in self.meta: self.meta['naxis1'] =[1] if 'naxis2' not in self.meta: self.meta['naxis2'] =[0] if 'naxis' not in self.meta: self.meta['naxis'] = self.ndim def _fix_bitpix(self): # Bit-depth # # 8 Character or unsigned binary integer # 16 16-bit twos-complement binary integer # 32 32-bit twos-complement binary integer # -32 IEEE single precision floating point # -64 IEEE double precision floating point # if 'bitpix' not in self.meta: float_fac = -1 if self.dtype.kind == "f" else 1 self.meta['bitpix'] = float_fac * 8 * self.dtype.itemsize def _get_cmap_name(self): """Build the default color map name.""" cmap_string = (self.observatory + self.meta['detector'] + str(int('angstrom').value))) return cmap_string.lower() def _validate_meta(self): """ Validates the meta-information associated with a Map. This method includes very basic validation checks which apply to all of the kinds of files that SunPy can read. Datasource-specific validation should be handled in the relevant file in the package. Allows for default unit assignment for: CUNIT1, CUNIT2, WAVEUNIT """ for meta_property in ('cunit1', 'cunit2', 'waveunit'): if (self.meta.get(meta_property) and u.Unit(self.meta.get(meta_property), parse_strict='silent').physical_type == 'unknown'): warnings.warn("Unknown value for " + meta_property.upper(), Warning) if (self.coordinate_system[0].startswith(('SOLX', 'SOLY')) or self.coordinate_system[1].startswith(('SOLX', 'SOLY'))): warnings.warn("SunPy Map currently does not support three dimensional data," " and therefore can not represent heliocentric coordinates. " "Creating a map in this frame will almost certainly result in errors.") # #### Data conversion routines #### #
[docs] def world_to_pixel(self, coordinate, origin=0): """ Convert a world (data) coordinate to a pixel coordinate by using `~astropy.wcs.WCS.wcs_world2pix`. Parameters ---------- coordinate : `~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord` or `~astropy.coordinates.BaseFrame` The coordinate object to convert to pixel coordinates. origin : int Origin of the top-left corner. i.e. count from 0 or 1. Normally, origin should be 0 when passing numpy indices, or 1 if passing values from FITS header or map attributes. See `~astropy.wcs.WCS.wcs_world2pix` for more information. Returns ------- x : `~astropy.units.Quantity` Pixel coordinate on the CTYPE1 axis. y : `~astropy.units.Quantity` Pixel coordinate on the CTYPE2 axis. """ if not isinstance(coordinate, (SkyCoord, astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame)): raise ValueError("world_to_pixel takes a Astropy coordinate frame or SkyCoord instance.") native_frame = coordinate.transform_to(self.coordinate_frame) lon, lat = u.Quantity(self._get_lon_lat(native_frame)).to(u.deg) x, y = self.wcs.wcs_world2pix(lon, lat, origin) return PixelPair(x * u.pixel, y * u.pixel)
# Thought it would be easier to create a copy this way.
[docs] @deprecated("0.8.0", alternative="") def data_to_pixel(self, coordinate, origin=0): """ See `` """ return self.world_to_pixel(coordinate, origin=origin)
[docs] @u.quantity_input(x=u.pixel, y=u.pixel) def pixel_to_world(self, x, y, origin=0): """ Convert a pixel coordinate to a data (world) coordinate by using `~astropy.wcs.WCS.wcs_pix2world`. Parameters ---------- x : `~astropy.units.Quantity` Pixel coordinate of the CTYPE1 axis. (Normally solar-x). y : `~astropy.units.Quantity` Pixel coordinate of the CTYPE2 axis. (Normally solar-y). origin : int Origin of the top-left corner. i.e. count from 0 or 1. Normally, origin should be 0 when passing numpy indices, or 1 if passing values from FITS header or map attributes. See `~astropy.wcs.WCS.wcs_pix2world` for more information. Returns ------- coord : `astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord` A coordinate object representing the output coordinate. """ x, y = self.wcs.wcs_pix2world(x, y, origin) # If the wcs is celestial it is output in degress if self.wcs.is_celestial: x = u.Quantity(x, u.deg) y = u.Quantity(y, u.deg) else: x = u.Quantity(x, self.spatial_units[0]) y = u.Quantity(y, self.spatial_units[1]) return SkyCoord(x, y, frame=self.coordinate_frame)
# Thought it would be easier to create a copy this way.
[docs] @deprecated("0.8.0", alternative="") def pixel_to_data(self, x, y, origin=0): """ See `` """ return self.pixel_to_world(x, y, origin=origin)
# #### I/O routines #### #
[docs] def save(self, filepath, filetype='auto', **kwargs): """Saves the SunPy Map object to a file. Currently SunPy can only save files in the FITS format. In the future support will be added for saving to other formats. Parameters ---------- filepath : str Location to save file to. filetype : str 'auto' or any supported file extension """ io.write_file(filepath,, self.meta, filetype=filetype, **kwargs)
# #### Image processing routines #### #
[docs] @u.quantity_input(dimensions=u.pixel) def resample(self, dimensions, method='linear'): """Returns a new Map that has been resampled up or down Arbitrary resampling of the Map to new dimension sizes. Uses the same parameters and creates the same co-ordinate lookup points as IDL''s congrid routine, which apparently originally came from a VAX/VMS routine of the same name. Parameters ---------- dimensions : `~astropy.units.Quantity` Pixel dimensions that new Map should have. Note: the first argument corresponds to the 'x' axis and the second argument corresponds to the 'y' axis. method : {'neighbor' | 'nearest' | 'linear' | 'spline'} Method to use for resampling interpolation. * neighbor - Closest value from original data * nearest and linear - Uses n x 1-D interpolations using scipy.interpolate.interp1d * spline - Uses ndimage.map_coordinates Returns ------- out : `` or subclass A new Map which has been resampled to the desired dimensions. References ---------- * `Rebinning <>`_ (Original source, 2011/11/19) """ # Note: because the underlying ndarray is transposed in sense when # compared to the Map, the ndarray is transposed, resampled, then # transposed back # Note: "center" defaults to True in this function because data # coordinates in a Map are at pixel centers # Make a copy of the original data and perform resample new_data = sunpy_image_resample(, dimensions, method, center=True) new_data = new_data.T scale_factor_x = float(self.dimensions[0] / dimensions[0]) scale_factor_y = float(self.dimensions[1] / dimensions[1]) # Update image scale and number of pixels new_meta = self.meta.copy() # Update metadata new_meta['cdelt1'] *= scale_factor_x new_meta['cdelt2'] *= scale_factor_y if 'CD1_1' in new_meta: new_meta['CD1_1'] *= scale_factor_x new_meta['CD2_1'] *= scale_factor_x new_meta['CD1_2'] *= scale_factor_y new_meta['CD2_2'] *= scale_factor_y new_meta['crpix1'] = (dimensions[0].value + 1) / 2. new_meta['crpix2'] = (dimensions[1].value + 1) / 2. lon, lat = self._get_lon_lat( new_meta['crval1'] = lon.value new_meta['crval2'] = lat.value # Create new map instance new_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings) return new_map
[docs] def rotate(self, angle=None, rmatrix=None, order=4, scale=1.0, recenter=False, missing=0.0, use_scipy=False): """ Returns a new rotated and rescaled map. Specify either a rotation angle or a rotation matrix, but not both. If neither an angle or a rotation matrix are specified, the map will be rotated by the rotation angle in the metadata. The map will be rotated around the reference coordinate defined in the meta data. This method also updates the ``rotation_matrix`` attribute and any appropriate header data so that they correctly describe the new map. Parameters ---------- angle : `~astropy.units.Quantity` The angle (degrees) to rotate counterclockwise. rmatrix : 2x2 Linear transformation rotation matrix. order : int 0-5 Interpolation order to be used. When using scikit-image this parameter is passed into :func:`skimage.transform.warp` (e.g., 4 corresponds to bi-quartic interpolation). When using scipy it is passed into :func:`scipy.ndimage.interpolation.affine_transform` where it controls the order of the spline. Faster performance may be obtained at the cost of accuracy by using lower values. Default: 4 scale : float A scale factor for the image, default is no scaling recenter : bool If True, position the axis of rotation at the center of the new map Default: False missing : float The numerical value to fill any missing points after rotation. Default: 0.0 use_scipy : bool If True, forces the rotation to use :func:`scipy.ndimage.interpolation.affine_transform`, otherwise it uses the :func:`skimage.transform.warp`. Default: False, unless scikit-image can't be imported Returns ------- out : `` or subclass A new Map instance containing the rotated and rescaled data of the original map. See Also -------- sunpy.image.transform.affine_transform : The routine this method calls for the rotation. Notes ----- This function will remove old CROTA keywords from the header. This function will also convert a CDi_j matrix to a PCi_j matrix. See :func:`sunpy.image.transform.affine_transform` for details on the transformations, situations when the underlying data is modified prior to rotation, and differences from IDL's rot(). """ if angle is not None and rmatrix is not None: raise ValueError("You cannot specify both an angle and a matrix") elif angle is None and rmatrix is None: rmatrix = self.rotation_matrix # This is out of the quantity_input decorator. To allow the angle=None # case. See if angle: try: equivalent = angle.unit.is_equivalent(u.deg) if not equivalent: raise u.UnitsError("Argument '{0}' to function '{1}'" " must be in units convertable to" " '{2}'.".format('angle', 'rotate', u.deg.to_string())) # Either there is no .unit or no .is_equivalent except AttributeError: if hasattr(angle, "unit"): error_msg = "a 'unit' attribute without an 'is_equivalent' method" else: error_msg = "no 'unit' attribute" raise TypeError("Argument '{0}' to function '{1}' has {2}. " "You may want to pass in an astropy Quantity instead." .format('angle', 'rotate', error_msg)) # Interpolation parameter sanity if order not in range(6): raise ValueError("Order must be between 0 and 5") # The FITS-WCS transform is by definition defined around the # reference coordinate in the header. lon, lat = self._get_lon_lat(self.reference_coordinate.frame) rotation_center = u.Quantity([lon, lat]) # Copy meta data new_meta = self.meta.copy() if angle is not None: # Calculate the parameters for the affine_transform c = np.cos(np.deg2rad(angle)) s = np.sin(np.deg2rad(angle)) rmatrix = np.matrix([[c, -s], [s, c]]) # Calculate the shape in pixels to contain all of the image data extent = np.max(np.abs(np.vstack(( * rmatrix, * rmatrix.T))), axis=0) # Calculate the needed padding or unpadding diff = np.asarray(np.ceil((extent - / 2), dtype=int).ravel() # Pad the image array pad_x = int(np.max((diff[1], 0))) pad_y = int(np.max((diff[0], 0))) new_data = np.pad(, ((pad_y, pad_y), (pad_x, pad_x)), mode='constant', constant_values=(missing, missing)) new_meta['crpix1'] += pad_x new_meta['crpix2'] += pad_y # All of the following pixel calculations use a pixel origin of 0 pixel_array_center = (np.flipud(new_data.shape) - 1) / 2.0 # Create a temporary map so we can use it for the data to pixel calculation. temp_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings) # Convert the axis of rotation from data coordinates to pixel coordinates pixel_rotation_center = u.Quantity(temp_map.world_to_pixel(self.reference_coordinate, origin=0)).value del temp_map if recenter: pixel_center = pixel_rotation_center else: pixel_center = pixel_array_center # Apply the rotation to the image data new_data = affine_transform(new_data.T, np.asarray(rmatrix), order=order, scale=scale, image_center=np.flipud(pixel_center), recenter=recenter, missing=missing, use_scipy=use_scipy).T if recenter: new_reference_pixel = pixel_array_center else: # Calculate new pixel coordinates for the rotation center new_reference_pixel = pixel_center +, pixel_rotation_center - pixel_center) new_reference_pixel = np.array(new_reference_pixel).ravel() # Define the new reference_pixel new_meta['crval1'] = rotation_center[0].value new_meta['crval2'] = rotation_center[1].value new_meta['crpix1'] = new_reference_pixel[0] + 1 # FITS pixel origin is 1 new_meta['crpix2'] = new_reference_pixel[1] + 1 # FITS pixel origin is 1 # Unpad the array if necessary unpad_x = -np.min((diff[1], 0)) if unpad_x > 0: new_data = new_data[:, unpad_x:-unpad_x] new_meta['crpix1'] -= unpad_x unpad_y = -np.min((diff[0], 0)) if unpad_y > 0: new_data = new_data[unpad_y:-unpad_y, :] new_meta['crpix2'] -= unpad_y # Calculate the new rotation matrix to store in the header by # "subtracting" the rotation matrix used in the rotate from the old one # That being calculate the dot product of the old header data with the # inverse of the rotation matrix. pc_C =, rmatrix.I) new_meta['PC1_1'] = pc_C[0, 0] new_meta['PC1_2'] = pc_C[0, 1] new_meta['PC2_1'] = pc_C[1, 0] new_meta['PC2_2'] = pc_C[1, 1] # Update pixel size if image has been scaled. if scale != 1.0: new_meta['cdelt1'] = (self.scale[0] / scale).value new_meta['cdelt2'] = (self.scale[1] / scale).value # Remove old CROTA kwargs because we have saved a new PCi_j matrix. new_meta.pop('CROTA1', None) new_meta.pop('CROTA2', None) # Remove CDi_j header new_meta.pop('CD1_1', None) new_meta.pop('CD1_2', None) new_meta.pop('CD2_1', None) new_meta.pop('CD2_2', None) # Create new map with the modification new_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings) return new_map
[docs] def submap(self, bottom_left, top_right=None): """ Returns a submap of the map defined by the rectangle given by the ``[bottom_left, top_right]`` coordinates. Parameters ---------- bottom_left : `astropy.units.Quantity` or `~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord` The bottom_left coordinate of the rectangle. If a `SkyCoord` it can have shape ``(2,)`` and also define ``top_right``. If specifying pixel coordinates it must be given as an `~astropy.units.Quantity` object with units of `~astropy.units.pixel`. top_right : `astropy.units.Quantity` or `~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord` The top_right coordinate of the rectangle. Can only be omitted if ``bottom_left`` has shape ``(2,)``. Returns ------- out : `` or subclass A new map instance is returned representing to specified sub-region Examples -------- >>> import astropy.units as u >>> import >>> import >>> aia = >>> bl = SkyCoord(-300*u.arcsec, -300*u.arcsec, frame=aia.coordinate_frame) >>> tr = SkyCoord(500*u.arcsec, 500*u.arcsec, frame=aia.coordinate_frame >>> aia.submap(bl, tr) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE SunPy Map --------- Observatory: SDO Instrument: AIA 3 Detector: AIA Measurement: 171.0 Angstrom Wavelength: 171.0 Angstrom Observation Date: 2011-03-19 10:54:00 Exposure Time: 1.999601 s Dimension: [ 333. 333.] pix Coordinate System: helioprojective Scale: [ 2.4 2.4] arcsec / pix Reference Pixel: [ 125.5 125.5] pix Reference Coord: [ 0. 0.] arcsec <BLANKLINE> array([[ 365.625 , 438.1875, 395.1875, ..., 201.375 , 204.4375, 216. ], [ 386.125 , 389.5 , 370.3125, ..., 207.3125, 202.1875, 196.75 ], [ 380.75 , 342.875 , 320.875 , ..., 187.5 , 196.9375, 178.875 ], ..., [ 225.3125, 219.1875, 211.1875, ..., 359.8125, 324.5625, 305.375 ], [ 228.625 , 228.8125, 225.8125, ..., 358.5 , 318. , 297.1875], [ 220.6875, 221.125 , 209.625 , ..., 390.4375, 329.375 , 302.3125]]) >>> aia.submap([0,0]*u.pixel, [5,5]*u.pixel) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE SunPy Map --------- Observatory: SDO Instrument: AIA 3 Detector: AIA Measurement: 171.0 Angstrom Wavelength: 171.0 Angstrom Observation Date: 2011-03-19 10:54:00 Exposure Time: 1.999601 s Dimension: [ 5. 5.] pix Coordinate System: helioprojective Scale: [ 2.4 2.4] arcsec / pix Reference Pixel: [ 512.5 512.5] pix Reference Coord: [ 0. 0.] arcsec <BLANKLINE> array([[ 0.3125, -0.0625, -0.125 , 0. , -0.375 ], [ 1. , 0.1875, -0.8125, 0.125 , 0.3125], [-1.1875, 0.375 , -0.5 , 0.25 , -0.4375], [-0.6875, -0.3125, 0.8125, 0.0625, 0.1875], [-0.875 , 0.25 , 0.1875, 0. , -0.6875]]) """ if isinstance(bottom_left, (astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame)): if not top_right: if bottom_left.shape[0] != 2: raise ValueError("If top_right is not specified bottom_left must have length two.") else: lon, lat = self._get_lon_lat(bottom_left) top_right = u.Quantity([lon[1], lat[1]]) bottom_left = u.Quantity([lon[0], lat[0]]) else: bottom_left = u.Quantity(self._get_lon_lat(bottom_left)) top_right = u.Quantity(self._get_lon_lat(top_right)) top_left = u.Quantity([bottom_left[0], top_right[1]]) bottom_right = u.Quantity([top_right[0], bottom_left[1]]) corners = u.Quantity([bottom_left, bottom_right, top_left, top_right]) coord = SkyCoord(corners, frame=self.coordinate_frame) pixel_corners = self.world_to_pixel(coord) # Round the pixel values, we use floor+1 so that we always have at # least one pixel width of data. x_pixels = u.Quantity([np.min(pixel_corners.x), np.max(pixel_corners.x)]).value x_pixels[0] = np.ceil(x_pixels[0]) x_pixels[1] = np.floor(x_pixels[1] + 1) y_pixels = u.Quantity([np.min(pixel_corners.y), np.max(pixel_corners.y)]).value y_pixels[0] = np.ceil(y_pixels[0]) y_pixels[1] = np.floor(y_pixels[1] + 1) elif (isinstance(bottom_left, u.Quantity) and bottom_left.unit.is_equivalent(u.pix) and isinstance(top_right, u.Quantity) and bottom_left.unit.is_equivalent(u.pix)): warnings.warn("GenericMap.submap now takes pixel values as `bottom_left`" " and `top_right` not `range_a` and `range_b`", Warning) x_pixels = u.Quantity([bottom_left[0], top_right[0]]).value y_pixels = u.Quantity([top_right[1], bottom_left[1]]).value else: raise ValueError("Invalid input, bottom_left and top_right must either be SkyCoord or Quantity in pixels.") # Sort the pixel values so we always slice in the correct direction x_pixels.sort() y_pixels.sort() x_pixels = np.array(x_pixels) y_pixels = np.array(y_pixels) # Clip pixel values to max of array, prevents negative # indexing x_pixels[np.less(x_pixels, 0)] = 0 x_pixels[np.greater(x_pixels,[1])] =[1] y_pixels[np.less(y_pixels, 0)] = 0 y_pixels[np.greater(y_pixels,[0])] =[0] # Get ndarray representation of submap xslice = slice(int(x_pixels[0]), int(x_pixels[1])) yslice = slice(int(y_pixels[0]), int(y_pixels[1])) new_data =[yslice, xslice].copy() # Make a copy of the header with updated centering information new_meta = self.meta.copy() new_meta['crpix1'] = self.reference_pixel.x.value - x_pixels[0] new_meta['crpix2'] = self.reference_pixel.y.value - y_pixels[0] new_meta['naxis1'] = new_data.shape[1] new_meta['naxis2'] = new_data.shape[0] # Create new map instance if self.mask is not None: new_mask = self.mask[yslice, xslice].copy() # Create new map with the modification new_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings, mask=new_mask) return new_map # Create new map with the modification new_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings) return new_map
[docs] @u.quantity_input(dimensions=u.pixel, offset=u.pixel) def superpixel(self, dimensions, offset=(0, 0)*u.pixel, func=np.sum): """Returns a new map consisting of superpixels formed by applying 'func' to the original map data. Parameters ---------- dimensions : tuple One superpixel in the new map is equal to (dimension[0], dimension[1]) pixels of the original map. Note: the first argument corresponds to the 'x' axis and the second argument corresponds to the 'y' axis. offset : tuple Offset from (0,0) in original map pixels used to calculate where the data used to make the resulting superpixel map starts. func : function applied to the original data The function 'func' must take a numpy array as its first argument, and support the axis keyword with the meaning of a numpy axis keyword (see the description of `~numpy.sum` for an example.) The default value of 'func' is `~numpy.sum`; using this causes superpixel to sum over (dimension[0], dimension[1]) pixels of the original map. Returns ------- out : `` or subclass A new Map which has superpixels of the required size. References ---------- | `Summarizing blocks of an array using a moving window <>`_ """ # Note: because the underlying ndarray is transposed in sense when # compared to the Map, the ndarray is transposed, resampled, then # transposed back. # Note: "center" defaults to True in this function because data # coordinates in a Map are at pixel centers. if (offset.value[0] < 0) or (offset.value[1] < 0): raise ValueError("Offset is strictly non-negative.") # Make a copy of the original data, perform reshaping, and apply the # function. if self.mask is not None: reshaped = reshape_image_to_4d_superpixel(, mask=self.mask), [dimensions.value[1], dimensions.value[0]], [offset.value[1], offset.value[0]]) else: reshaped = reshape_image_to_4d_superpixel(, [dimensions.value[1], dimensions.value[0]], [offset.value[1], offset.value[0]]) new_array = func(func(reshaped, axis=3), axis=1) # Update image scale and number of pixels # create copy of new meta data new_meta = self.meta.copy() new_nx = new_array.shape[1] new_ny = new_array.shape[0] # Update metadata new_meta['cdelt1'] = (dimensions[0] * self.scale[0]).value new_meta['cdelt2'] = (dimensions[1] * self.scale[1]).value if 'CD1_1' in new_meta: new_meta['CD1_1'] *= dimensions[0].value new_meta['CD2_1'] *= dimensions[0].value new_meta['CD1_2'] *= dimensions[1].value new_meta['CD2_2'] *= dimensions[1].value new_meta['crpix1'] = (new_nx + 1) / 2. new_meta['crpix2'] = (new_ny + 1) / 2. lon, lat = self._get_lon_lat( new_meta['crval1'] =[0]).value + 0.5*(offset[0]*self.scale[0]).to(self.spatial_units[0]).value new_meta['crval2'] =[1]).value + 0.5*(offset[1]*self.scale[1]).to(self.spatial_units[1]).value # Create new map instance if self.mask is not None: new_data = new_mask = else: new_data = new_array new_mask = None # Create new map with the modified data new_map = self._new_instance(new_data, new_meta, self.plot_settings, mask=new_mask) return new_map
# #### Visualization #### #
[docs] @u.quantity_input(grid_spacing=u.deg) def draw_grid(self, axes=None, grid_spacing=15*u.deg, **kwargs): """ Draws a coordinate overlay on the plot in the Heliographic Stonyhurst coordinate system. To overlay other coordinate systems see the `WCSAxes Documentation <>`_ Parameters ---------- axes: `~matplotlib.axes` or None Axes to plot limb on or None to use current axes. grid_spacing: `~astropy.units.Quantity` Spacing for longitude and latitude grid, if length two it specifies (lon, lat) spacing. Returns ------- overlay: `~astropy.visualization.wcsaxes.coordinates_map.CoordinatesMap` The wcsaxes coordinate overlay instance. Notes ----- Keyword arguments are passed onto the `sunpy.visualization.wcsaxes_compat.wcsaxes_heliographic_overlay` function. """ if not axes: axes = wcsaxes_compat.gca_wcs(self.wcs) if not wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): raise TypeError("Overlay grids can only be plotted on WCSAxes plots.") return wcsaxes_compat.wcsaxes_heliographic_overlay(axes, grid_spacing=grid_spacing, **kwargs)
[docs] def draw_limb(self, axes=None, **kwargs): """ Draws a circle representing the solar limb Parameters ---------- axes: `~matplotlib.axes` or None Axes to plot limb on or None to use current axes. Returns ------- circ: list A list containing the `~matplotlib.patches.Circle` object that has been added to the axes. Notes ----- Keyword arguments are passed onto `matplotlib.patches.Circle`. """ if not axes: axes = wcsaxes_compat.gca_wcs(self.wcs) transform = wcsaxes_compat.get_world_transform(axes) if wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): radius = else: radius = self.rsun_obs.value c_kw = {'radius': radius, 'fill': False, 'color': 'white', 'zorder': 100, 'transform': transform } c_kw.update(kwargs) circ = patches.Circle([0, 0], **c_kw) axes.add_artist(circ) return [circ]
[docs] @u.quantity_input(width=u.deg, height=u.deg) def draw_rectangle(self, bottom_left, width, height, axes=None, **kwargs): """ Draw a rectangle defined in world coordinates on the plot. Parameters ---------- bottom_left : `~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord` or `~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame` The bottom left corner of the rectangle. width : `astropy.units.Quantity` The width of the rectangle. height : `astropy.units.Quantity` The height of the rectangle. axes : `matplotlib.axes.Axes` The axes on which to plot the rectangle, defaults to the current axes. Returns ------- rect : `list` A list containing the `~matplotlib.patches.Rectangle` object, after it has been added to ``axes``. Notes ----- Extra keyword arguments to this function are passed through to the `~matplotlib.patches.Rectangle` instance. """ if not axes: axes = plt.gca() if wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): axes_unit = u.deg else: axes_unit = self.spatial_units[0] coord = bottom_left.transform_to(self.coordinate_frame) bottom_left = u.Quantity((,, unit=axes_unit).value width = height = kwergs = {'transform': wcsaxes_compat.get_world_transform(axes), 'color': 'white', 'fill': False} kwergs.update(kwargs) rect = plt.Rectangle(bottom_left, width, height, **kwergs) axes.add_artist(rect) return [rect]
[docs] @u.quantity_input(levels=u.percent) def draw_contours(self, levels, axes=None, **contour_args): """ Draw contours of the data Parameters ---------- levels : `~astropy.units.Quantity` A list of numbers indicating the level curves to draw given in percent. axes : `matplotlib.axes.Axes` The axes on which to plot the rectangle, defaults to the current axes. Returns ------- cs : `list` The `~matplotlib.QuadContourSet` object, after it has been added to ``axes``. Notes ----- Extra keyword arguments to this function are passed through to the `~matplotlib.pyplot.contour` function. """ if not axes: axes = wcsaxes_compat.gca_wcs(self.wcs) # TODO: allow for use of direct input of contours but requires units of # map flux which is not yet implemented cs = axes.contour(, 0.01 *'percent').value *, **contour_args) return cs
[docs] @toggle_pylab def peek(self, draw_limb=False, draw_grid=False, colorbar=True, basic_plot=False, **matplot_args): """Displays the map in a new figure Parameters ---------- draw_limb : bool Whether the solar limb should be plotted. draw_grid : bool or `~astropy.units.Quantity` Whether solar meridians and parallels are plotted. If `~astropy.units.Quantity` then sets degree difference between parallels and meridians. gamma : float Gamma value to use for the color map colorbar : bool Whether to display a colorbar next to the plot basic_plot : bool If true, the data is plotted by itself at it's natural scale; no title, labels, or axes are shown. **matplot_args : dict Matplotlib Any additional imshow arguments that should be used when plotting. """ # Create a figure and add title and axes figure = plt.figure(frameon=not basic_plot) # Basic plot if basic_plot: axes = plt.Axes(figure, [0., 0., 1., 1.]) axes.set_axis_off() figure.add_axes(axes) matplot_args.update({'annotate': False, "_basic_plot": True}) # Normal plot else: axes = wcsaxes_compat.gca_wcs(self.wcs) im = self.plot(axes=axes, **matplot_args) if colorbar and not basic_plot: figure.colorbar(im) if draw_limb: self.draw_limb(axes=axes) if isinstance(draw_grid, bool): if draw_grid: self.draw_grid(axes=axes) elif isinstance(draw_grid, u.Quantity): self.draw_grid(axes=axes, grid_spacing=draw_grid) else: raise TypeError("draw_grid should be a bool or an astropy Quantity.")
[docs] @toggle_pylab def plot(self, annotate=True, axes=None, title=True, **imshow_kwargs): """ Plots the map object using matplotlib, in a method equivalent to plt.imshow() using nearest neighbour interpolation. Parameters ---------- annotate : bool If True, the data is plotted at it's natural scale; with title and axis labels. axes: `~matplotlib.axes` or None If provided the image will be plotted on the given axes. Else the current matplotlib axes will be used. **imshow_kwargs : dict Any additional imshow arguments that should be used when plotting. Examples -------- >>> # Simple Plot with color bar >>> aia.plot() # doctest: +SKIP >>> plt.colorbar() # doctest: +SKIP >>> # Add a limb line and grid >>> aia.plot() # doctest: +SKIP >>> aia.draw_limb() # doctest: +SKIP >>> aia.draw_grid() # doctest: +SKIP """ # extract hiddden kwarg _basic_plot = imshow_kwargs.pop("_basic_plot", False) # Get current axes if not axes: axes = wcsaxes_compat.gca_wcs(self.wcs) if not _basic_plot: # Check that the image is properly oriented if (not wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes) and not np.array_equal(self.rotation_matrix, np.matrix(np.identity(2)))): warnings.warn("This map is not properly oriented. Plot axes may be incorrect", Warning) elif not wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): warnings.warn("WCSAxes not being used as the axes object for this plot." " Plots may have expected behaviour", Warning) # Normal plot imshow_args = deepcopy(self.plot_settings) if 'title' in imshow_args: plot_settings_title = imshow_args.pop('title') else: plot_settings_title = self.latex_name if annotate: if title is True: title = plot_settings_title if title: axes.set_title(title) axes.set_xlabel(axis_labels_from_ctype(self.coordinate_system[0], self.spatial_units[0])) axes.set_ylabel(axis_labels_from_ctype(self.coordinate_system[1], self.spatial_units[1])) if not wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): bl = self._get_lon_lat(self.bottom_left_coord) tr = self._get_lon_lat(self.top_right_coord) x_range = list(u.Quantity([bl[0], tr[0]]).to(self.spatial_units[0]).value) y_range = list(u.Quantity([bl[1], tr[1]]).to(self.spatial_units[0]).value) imshow_args.update({'extent': x_range + y_range}) imshow_args.update(imshow_kwargs) if self.mask is None: ret = axes.imshow(, **imshow_args) else: ret = axes.imshow(, mask=self.mask), **imshow_args) if wcsaxes_compat.is_wcsaxes(axes): wcsaxes_compat.default_wcs_grid(axes, units=self.spatial_units, ctypes=self.coordinate_system) # Set current image (makes colorbar work) plt.sci(ret) return ret
class InvalidHeaderInformation(ValueError): """Exception to raise when an invalid header tag value is encountered for a FITS/JPEG 2000 file.""" pass