Source code for

FITS File Reader

    [1] FITS files allow comments to be attached to every value in the header.
    This is implemented in this module as a KEYCOMMENTS dictionary in the
    sunpy header. To add a comment to the file on write, add a comment to this
    dictionary with the same name as a key in the header (upcased).

    [2] Due to the way `` works with images the header dictionary may
    differ depending on whether is accessed before or after the fits[0].data
    is requested. If the header is read before the data then the original
    header will be returned. If the header is read after the data has been
    accessed then the data will have been scaled and a modified header
    reflecting these changes will be returned: BITPIX may differ and
    BSCALE and B_ZERO may be dropped in the modified version.

    [3] The verify('fix') call attempts to handle violations of the FITS
    standard. For example, nan values will be converted to "nan" strings.
    Attempting to cast a pyfits header to a dictionary while it contains
    invalid header tags will result in an error so verifying it early on
    makes the header easier to work with later.

from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
import os
import re
import sys
import warnings
import traceback
import itertools
import collections

from import fits

from import FileHeader
from sunpy.extern.six.moves import zip

__all__ = ['header_to_fits', 'read', 'get_header', 'write', 'extract_waveunit']

__author__ = "Keith Hughitt, Stuart Mumford, Simon Liedtke"
__email__ = "[email protected]"

HDPair = collections.namedtuple('HDPair', ['data', 'header'])

[docs]def read(filepath, hdus=None, memmap=None, **kwargs): """ Read a fits file Parameters ---------- filepath : `str` The fits file to be read hdu: `int` or iterable The HDU indexes to read from the file Returns ------- pairs : `list` A list of (data, header) tuples Notes ----- This routine reads all the HDU's in a fits file and returns a list of the data and a FileHeader instance for each one. Also all comments in the original file are concatenated into a single 'comment' key in the returned FileHeader. """ with, ignore_blank=True, memmap=memmap) as hdulist: if hdus is not None: if isinstance(hdus, int): hdulist = hdulist[hdus] elif isinstance(hdus, collections.Iterable): hdulist = [hdulist[i] for i in hdus] hdulist.verify('silentfix+warn') headers = get_header(hdulist) pairs = [] for i, (hdu, header) in enumerate(zip(hdulist, headers)): try: pairs.append(HDPair(, header)) except (KeyError, ValueError) as e: message = "Error when reading HDU {}. Skipping.\n".format(i) for line in traceback.format_tb(sys.exc_info()[2]): message += line message += '\n' message += repr(e) warnings.warn(message, Warning, stacklevel=2) return pairs
[docs]def get_header(afile): """ Read a fits file and return just the headers for all HDU's. In each header, the key WAVEUNIT denotes the wavelength unit which is used to describe the value of the key WAVELNTH. Parameters ---------- afile : `str` or fits.HDUList The file to be read, or HDUList to process. Returns ------- headers : `list` A list of FileHeader headers. """ if isinstance(afile, fits.HDUList): hdulist = afile close = False else: hdulist =, ignore_blank=True) hdulist.verify('silentfix') close = True try: headers = [] for hdu in hdulist: try: comment = "".join(hdu.header['COMMENT']).strip() except KeyError: comment = "" try: history = "".join(hdu.header['HISTORY']).strip() except KeyError: history = "" header = FileHeader(hdu.header) header['COMMENT'] = comment header['HISTORY'] = history # Strip out KEYCOMMENTS to a dict, the hard way keydict = {} for card in if card.comment != '': keydict.update({card.keyword: card.comment}) header['KEYCOMMENTS'] = keydict header['WAVEUNIT'] = extract_waveunit(header) headers.append(header) finally: if close: hdulist.close() return headers
[docs]def write(fname, data, header, hdu_type=None, **kwargs): """ Take a data header pair and write a FITS file. Parameters ---------- fname : `str` File name, with extension data : `numpy.ndarray` n-dimensional data array header : `dict` A header dictionary hdu_type: `None`, `~fits.CompImageHDU` `None` will return a normal FITS files. `~fits.CompImageHDU` will rice compress the FITS file. """ # Copy header so the one in memory is left alone while changing it for # write. header = header.copy() fits_header = header_to_fits(header) if isinstance(fname, str): fname = os.path.expanduser(fname) fitskwargs = {'output_verify': 'fix'} fitskwargs.update(kwargs) if not hdu_type: hdu_type = fits.PrimaryHDU hdu = hdu_type(data=data, header=fits_header) if not isinstance(hdu, fits.PrimaryHDU): hdul = fits.HDUList([fits.PrimaryHDU(), hdu]) else: hdul = fits.HDUList([hdu]) hdul.writeto(fname, **fitskwargs)
[docs]def header_to_fits(header): """ Convert a header dict to a `~astropy.fits.Header`. """ # The comments need to be added to the header separately from the normal # kwargs. Find and deal with them: fits_header = fits.Header() # Check Header key_comments = header.pop('KEYCOMMENTS', False) for k, v in header.items(): if isinstance(v, fits.header._HeaderCommentaryCards): if k.upper() == 'COMMENT': comments = str(v).split('\n') for com in comments: fits_header.add_comment(com) elif k.upper() == 'HISTORY': hists = str(v).split('\n') for hist in hists: fits_header.add_history(hist) elif k != '': fits_header.append(fits.Card(k, str(v).split('\n'))) else: fits_header.append(fits.Card(k, v)) if isinstance(key_comments, dict): for k, v in key_comments.items(): # Check that the Card for the comment exists before trying to write to it. if k in fits_header: fits_header.comments[k] = v elif key_comments: raise TypeError("KEYCOMMENTS must be a dictionary") return fits_header
[docs]def extract_waveunit(header): """Attempt to read the wavelength unit from a given FITS header. Parameters ---------- header : FileHeader One :class:`` instance which was created by reading a FITS file. :func:`` returns a list of such instances. Returns ------- waveunit : `str` The wavelength unit that could be found or ``None`` otherwise. Examples -------- The goal of this function is to return a string that can be used in conjunction with the astropy.units module so that the return value can be directly passed to ``astropy.units.Unit``:: >>> import astropy.units >>> header = {'WAVEUNIT': 'Angstrom', 'KEYCOMMENTS': {}} >>> waveunit = extract_waveunit(header) >>> if waveunit is not None: ... unit = astropy.units.Unit(waveunit) """ # algorithm: try the following procedures in the following order and return # as soon as a waveunit could be detected # 1. read header('WAVEUNIT'). If None, go to step 2. # 1.1 -9 -> 'nm' # 1.2 -10 -> 'angstrom' # 1.3 0 -> go to step 2 # 1.4 if neither of the above, return the value itself in lowercase # 2. parse waveunit_comment # 2.1 'in meters' -> 'm' # 3. parse wavelnth_comment # 3.1 "[$UNIT] ..." -> $UNIT # 3.2 "Observed wavelength ($UNIT)" -> $UNIT def parse_waveunit_comment(waveunit_comment): if waveunit_comment == 'in meters': return 'm' waveunit_comment = header['KEYCOMMENTS'].get('WAVEUNIT') wavelnth_comment = header['KEYCOMMENTS'].get('WAVELNTH') waveunit = header.get('WAVEUNIT') if waveunit is not None: metre_submultiples = { 0: parse_waveunit_comment(waveunit_comment), -1: 'dm', -2: 'cm', -3: 'mm', -6: 'um', -9: 'nm', -10: 'angstrom', -12: 'pm', -15: 'fm', -18: 'am', -21: 'zm', -24: 'ym'} waveunit = metre_submultiples.get(waveunit, str(waveunit).lower()) elif waveunit_comment is not None: waveunit = parse_waveunit_comment(waveunit_comment) elif wavelnth_comment is not None: # supported formats (where $UNIT is the unit like "nm" or "Angstrom"): # "Observed wavelength ($UNIT)" # "[$UNIT] ..." parentheses_pattern = r'Observed wavelength \((\w+?)\)$' brackets_pattern = r'^\[(\w+?)\]' for pattern in [parentheses_pattern, brackets_pattern]: m =, wavelnth_comment) if m is not None: waveunit = break if waveunit == '': return None # To fix problems associated with HMI FITS. return waveunit